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Body Systems

The knowledge of body systems refers to pure biology; this knowledge is very useful to everyone in general and for the pharma people in particular. One cannot excel in this industry without concrete and comprehensive knowledge of body systems. Although we (pharma people) try to refresh the knowledge about body systems but we focus the area related to our products. So, if anyone wants to switch from a product portfolio to another he must review the basics of systems.

The Cell

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Cell
The Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. Simplest plants and animals consist of a single cell. Higher animals including human can be regarded as a complex society of independent cells of many different types. The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies.  In the body, there are brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, stomach cells, and the list goes on. All of these cells have unique functions and features.
Animal Cells are typical of the eukaryotic cell, enclosed by a plasma membrane and containing a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles. Unlike the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells do not have a cell wall.
The size of human cells varies between 5 to 50 micrometer. However certain cells may be exceptionally large e.g., the mature ovum (diameter 120 micrometer)

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Tissues

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function. The tissues in animals are classified in four categories. These are

  1. Connective Tissues
  2. Epithelium Tissues
  3. Muscle Tissues
  4. Nervous Tissues

 

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Organ & Organ Systems

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Organ:

A group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions is called an Organ.

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Muscular System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

The muscular system makes up nearly half the weight of the human body. The muscles provide the forces that enable the body to move. Muscles stretch across joints to link one bone with another and work in groups to respond to nerve impulses.

There are three types of muscle

  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle

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Circulatory System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Circulatory System

Circulatory System composed of:

  • Cardiovascular System
  • Lymphatic System

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Respiratory System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

The Respiratory System supplies the body with oxygen, Air is inhaled through the nose or mouth. It then travels into the pharynx, passes through the larynx, and down the trachea. The trachea branch and air reaches the lungs where it will diffuse into the blood via the alveoli.

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Gastrointestinal / Digestive System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Gastrointestinal System (Digestive System)

The human digestive system is a complex process that consists of breaking down large organic masses into smaller particles that the body can use as fuel. The breakdown of the nutrients requires the coordination of several enzymes secreted from specialized cells within the mouth, stomach, intestines, and liver. The digestive system comprises of two main components:

The digestive tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and anus.

Associated glands include salivary glands, liver and pancreas.
 

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The Skin

Post By: Posted Date: December 25, 2011

 

The skin forms the external covering of the body. Specialized derivatives of skin called appendages include the hairs, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands. Skin consists of two layers:

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Excretory System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Excretion 

Excretion is the removal of the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes that are removed include carbon dioxide, water, salt, urea and uric acid. All excreted wastes travel at some time in the blood.

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes.

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Reproductive System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Reproduction

Reproduction can be defined as the process by which an organism continues its species. In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells ( gametes), are involved: the male gamete (sperm), and the female gamete (egg or ovum). These two gametes meet within the female's uterine tubes located one on each side of the upper pelvic cavity, and begin to create a new individual. The female needs a male to fertilize her egg; she then carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth.

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Immune System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

The Immune System

The immune system is a complex system that is responsible for protecting us against infections and foreign substances. There are three lines of defense

  • The first is to keep invaders out (through skin, mucus membranes, etc),
  • The second line of defense consists of non-specific ways to defend against pathogens that have broken through the first line of defense (such as with inflammatory response and fever). 
  • The third line of defense is mounted against specific pathogens that are causing disease (B cells produce antibodies against bacteria or viruses in the extracellular fluid, while T cells kill cells that have become infected).

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Endocrine System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Endocrine System

The role of the endocrine system is to maintain the body in balance through the release of hormones (chemical signals) directly into the bloodstream. Hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Many different hormones move through the bloodstream, but each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells.

A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body.

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Skeletal System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Skeletal System

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built.

The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals.

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Nervous System

Post By: Hussainz Posted Date: January 1, 2012

Nervous System:

Human nervous system consists of billions of nerve cells (or neurons) plus supporting (neuroglial) cells. Neurons are able to respond to stimuli (such as touch, sound, light, and so on), conduct impulses, and communicate with each other (and with other types of cells like muscle cells)

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